Call to Action
We call upon all European governments, individually and through European institutions to:

1    Articulate Clear Policies

  • All states must recognise the grave challenges presented by armed drones, and publicly articulate clear policy and legal positions on this issue. This includes possible collaboration in drone operations by other parties.
  • States that use armed drones must publish their rules and procedures to show full compliance with international law, including preventing, mitigating and investigating all unlawful deaths, and more broadly all civilian harm.

2   Prevent Complicity

  • States must not be complicit in unlawful drone strikes, for example, by providing logistical support or data used to track down targets. European states must accept their ‘third-party responsibility’.

3   Ensure Transparency

  • All states should work on transparency through the sharing and publication of information that can contribute to the development of restrictive norms of behaviour, the prevention of harm and the strengthening of international law.
  • Additionally, states that use armed drones in counterterrorism operations must provide timely public information, on a case-by-case basis, on the legal and factual grounds on which speci c individuals or groups are targeted, and provide informationon the number of casualties and their identities.

4   Establish Accountability

  • States involved in drone strikes must conduct prompt, thorough, independent and impartial investigations into all allegations of unlawful death or civilian harm and publish the results of each investigation in a timely manner.
  • All states must ensure that the rights of victims of drone strikes are upheld, including by ensuring e ective access to judicial remedies and reparation.

5   Control Proliferation

  • All states must enact stricter controls on the transfer of military and dual-use drone technology. This includes standardising categories of drones and related technology in export control regimes and treaties on national, regional and international levels,and applying clear criteria to prevent irresponsible transfers.
  • All states should participate in a global debate in relevant international forums, so as to work towards broader understanding of, and support by states for, stricter control of transfers of drones and drone-related technology.